On February 20, 1880, he demonstrated his experiment to representatives of the Royal Society including Thomas Henry Huxley, Sir George Gabriel Stokes, and William Spottiswoode, then president of the Society.  Using a Ruhmkorff coil to create sparks across a gap (a spark gap transmitter) and observing the sparks created between the gap in a nearby metal loop antenna, between 1886 and 1888 Hertz would conduct a series of scientific experiments that would validated Maxwell's theory.  In 1898, Marconi opened a radio factory in Hall Street, Chelmsford, England, employing around 50 people. , During 1789-91, Luigi Galvani noticed that a spark generated nearby caused a convulsion in a frog's leg being touched by a scalpel. In 1873 Maxwell described the theoretical basis of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in his paper to the Royal Society, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field." He demonstrated that a wire carrying a current could deflect a magnetized compass needle. Hertz initially couldn't see any way to test the theory but his observation, in the autumn of 1886, of discharging a Leyden jar into a large coil and producing a spark in an adjacent coil gave him the idea of how to build a test apparatus. In 1802 Gian Domenico Romagnosi may have suggested a relationship between electricity and magnetism but his reports went unnoticed.  A few months after Ward received his patent, Mahlon Loomis of West Virginia received U.S. Patent 129,971 for a similar "wireless telegraph" in July 1872. The Supreme Court of the United States would eventually invalidate the US patent because of an improper disclaimer and, additionally, maintained the technology in the patent was known art when filed. ", Hertz died in 1894, and the art of radio wave communication was left to others to implement into a practical form. He replied, "It's of no use whatsoever.  A coherer made on what is called the Stone system was employed in some of the portable wireless outfits of the United States Army.  In addition, in 1899, W. H. Preece delivered "Aetheric Telegraphy", stating that the experimental stage in wireless telegraphy had been passed in 1894 and inventors were then entering the commercial stage. The idea that the wires needed for electrical telegraphy could be eliminated, creating a wireless telegraph, had been around for a while before radio-based communication. In September 1924, Marconi transmitted during daytime and nighttime on 32 meters from Poldhu to his yacht in Beirut. In spring 1899 Braun, accompanied by his colleagues Cantor and Zenneck, went to Cuxhaven to continue their experiments at the North Sea. Braun's circuit afforded a much longer sustained oscillation because the energy encountered less loss swinging between coil and Leyden Jars. , The earliest known record of an effect attributable to radio waves is the effect observed by George Adams who in the early 1780s noticed sparks between charged and uncharged conductors when a Leyden jar was discharged nearby.
Also in 1897, Marconi established the radio station at Niton, Isle of Wight, England. In the system for receiving the energy of free or unguided simple harmonic electromagnetic signal waves of a definite frequency to the exclusion of the energy of signal waves of other frequencies, he claimed an elevated conductor and a resonant circuit associated with said conductor and attuned to the frequency of the waves, the energy of which is to be received. Fessenden believed that the damped wave-coherer system was essentially and fundamentally incapable of development into a practical system.  The Marconi Company was renamed Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in 1900. Beam Wireless Services from the UK to Australia, South Africa and India went into service in 1927. Radio development began as "wireless telegraphy".  In the following year machines were constructed having a frequency of 96 kilohertz and outputs of 1 kW and 2 kW. "New Marconi Wireless Telegraph Apparatus". His laboratory work and later large scale experiments at Colorado Springs led him to the conclusion that he could build a conduction based worldwide wireless system that would use the Earth itself (via injecting very large amounts of electric current into the ground) as the means to conduct the signal very long distances (across the Earth), overcoming the perceived limitations of other systems.
In November 1894, the Indian physicist, Jagadish Chandra Bose, demonstrated publicly the use of radio waves in Calcutta, but he was not interested in patenting his work. Brand, W.E., "Rereading the Supreme Court: Tesla's Invention of Radio", Thompson, S. P., Homans, J. E., & Tesla, N. (1903). A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, British Association for the Advancement of Science, Wireless Telegraph Trading Signal Company, Wireless Electric Transmission of Signals Over Surfaces, Means for Tuning and Adjusting Electric Circuits, De Forest Radio Telephone and Telegraph Company, List of persons considered father or mother of a field, Guglielmo Marconi - The father of long distance radio communication - An engineer's tribute", "Milestones: First Wireless Radio Broadcast by Reginald A. Fessenden, 1906", "Reginald Aubrey Fessenden and the Birth of Wireless Telephony", "History of the Radio Industry in the United States to 1940", "Nikola Tesla: The Guy Who DIDN'T 'Invent Radio, "Romagnosi and the discovery of electromagnetism", "Romagnosi and Volta’s pile: early difficulties in the interpretation of Voltaic electricity", "The myth of Michael Faraday: Michael Faraday was not just one of Britain's greatest experimenters. (1914). The Audion Detector, Audion Amplifier, and the "Oscillion" transmitter had furthered the radio art and the transmission of written or audible speech.
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