Environmental considerations may include but not be limited to: room spacing, time of day, focus and expectations of the facility, level of co-treatment employed, timing of treatment in relation to other daily events, family expectations, level of support from family, the instrumentation available, and collaborative processes with other professionals.
9 The three common tumbadores in Cuban ensembles are quinto, conga, and tumba; they are differentiated largely by pitch. The question then becomes, how does the concept operate?
Therapist considerations include but are not limited to assessment interpretation, expectations, past experiences, theoretical orientation(s), preferences, and level of familiarity.
Sounds are nuanced through timbre, volume, and sustain, resulting in variations in dynamics and sonic envelopes. We become more aware of the event and its potential. Deleuze's philosophy. In the case of the spoon and the drum, each characteristic can be seen as a simultaneous strength and limitation, depending on the context within which it is used. The theory of multiplicities, he explains, must be distinguished from traditional philosophical problems of "the One and the Multiple." They may question how relevant or meaningful such is to the field of music therapy.
For example, are spoons not played in folk music traditions throughout the world?
Deleuze shows similar affinities for non-linear thought, for emergence, and for something near chaos. Music therapy as multiplicity: Implicati .... Understanding Deleuze and the multiplicity, https://doi.org/10.1080/08098131.2020.1811371, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2011.02.001, http://cmed.faculty.ku.edu/813/813powerts.html, http://deleuzelectures.blogspot.com/2007/02/theory-of-multiplicities-in-bergson.html, https://doi.org/10.1080/08098131.2019.1649712, https://www.academia.edu/12393278/The_Spectre_of_Immanence_Sartre_Merleau-Ponty_Foucault_and_Deleuze, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-769X.2004.00184.x, https://doi.org/10.1177/135945759601000103, https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/145740874.pdf, https://doi.org/10.18357/ijcyfs32-3201210870, Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing & Allied Health.
Other dichotomies have also been explored in our field. Understood largely through Bruscia’s writing and Deleuze’s conceptual work, multiplicity provides new ways to look at music and at what happens in between science, art, and human relationship. Deleuze's philosophy. Some approaches to music therapy are identified by their use of centering. The struck drum or plucked guitar detunes ever so slightly. Music is both permeable within itself, and an “open structure that permeates and is permeated by the world” (Bogue, 1991, p. 85). The relationships described by Small (1998), and the rightful latter elaborations of musicking as a situated practice by music therapy authors, can also be considered in terms of their scientific organization, their artistic creativity (whether prepared or extemporaneous) and their intentions regarding human value. Mariana Ortega is Professor of Philosophy at John Carroll University and coeditor (with Linda Martín Alcoff) of Constructing the Nation: A Race and Nationalism Reader, also published by SUNY Press.
The intensive is developed within the extensive, and vice versa. Each component also has the capacity to affect and be affected by the others.
Music, the environment, the therapist’s training, and the clients’ experience have the capacity to affect and be affected by each other through events, promoting differentiation and change in future contexts. As an alternative to dualistic, dichotomous, and dialectic thinking, musicologists have either implied or discussed the ways that music multiplies. A synthetic djembe made of fiberglass commonly has a longer sound envelope and more overtones than a wooden djembe due to the materials used and the ways they are constructed.
We gain new understandings of outcomes as multiple, due to our complex work and our clients’ constant engagement with new contexts over time. Humanity implies our connective power and potential as unique beings. In multiplicity, we seek to first sense, and then make sense of ourselves in a world of disruption and re-organization – scientifically, “always already situated in a set of relations” (Colebrook & Bennett, 2009, p. 71).
3 While the second edition (1989) mentions interpersonal process, the third edition mentions humanity. The qualities of a spoon may change due to the way it interacts with something else (e.g. abrupt changes in temperature, scraping against something).
Like the second definition above, Bruscia’s multiplicity denotes an active, gerund-like quality; his description allows us to consider how the act of music therapy occurs, how we understand it, how it promotes change, and how we may value the various ways we work as clinicians. The author reports no conflicts of interest. Kenny (1996) noted “Music Therapy is different to different people at different times in different places” (p. 3). 20 For those interested, the work of Alain Badiou, Slavoj Zizek, Ray Brassier, and Graham Harman may be worth exploring.
This capacity can also be found in other animal species to certain degrees and in particular ways (Matney, 2007). 99, 107). Verder worden recensies ook geanalyseerd om de betrouwbaarheid te verifiëren.
While Deleuze established his multiplicity concept in the 1960s, translations from French to English occurred decades later, perhaps limiting its employment in some areas. Deleuze’s multiplicity conceptualizes a system in flux, acknowledging intensities and flows that engage in a dynamic multiple. During the COVID 19 pandemic experienced around the time of this publication, we have seen just how detrimental certain acts of music can be in particular contexts, while also seeing its power to heal trauma and loneliness. I am a music therapist who has formally and informally engaged with philosophy for more than three decades. There will always exist tensions between diverse approaches, but the multiplicity acknowledges these tensions through more interesting and diverse spatial relations. This idea of multiplicity, as an alternative to simple difference and opposition, is also not new to music and health.
This ontological positioning promotes a tapestry of relationships and enriched engagements.
Each item in the relationship has the capacity to affect and to be affected 8 ; the item cut by the spoon will also interact in a way that affects the spoon (e.g.
Gilles Deleuze is considered one of the most influential philosophers of the latter twentieth century. We give less priority to identifications, particularly when oppositional.
I therefore continue by “dialoguing” with some music therapy theories to show how multiplicity may enhance and challenge current lines of thought, as well as potentially re-shape the way we think about the field’s existence, it’s knowledge, and its values. Many of the ideas related to this concept are not entirely new to the field, but they are presented in a unique, and I believe relevant fashion. However, this openness to change is not only a passive, cause/effect process. ", The notion of multiplicity forms a central part of Bergson's critique of philosophical negativity and the dialectical method, Deleuze argues in his commentary, Bergsonism (1966). Within these considerations, I will continue to layer in examples. Rhythms may be structured through consistent (or inconsistent) patterns in tempo, phrasing, dynamics (accented beats or agogic emphasis), and layered duration (metric organization). The philosophical reply can likely be found in the more subtle positions of the two thinkers that originated them. In the midst of music therapy-as-multiplicity, these categorical boundaries become porous. Complexity theory takes into account the chaotic considerations of the world, and of our individual and collective “messy” operations within it. Arrived as promised in excellent condition! Heeft dit boek problemen met kwaliteit of opmaak? Holmes & Gastaldo, 2004), and music therapy (e.g. A “decentered centre” provides us a new image with which we not only promote “tolerance for diversity, in the broadest sense of the term” (Stige, 2002, p. 2), but also to promote the potential for radicalized thought and action related to diverse needs, such as those found in post-human stances (Ansdell & Stige, 2018; Braidotti, 2012; Ruud, 2020). Becoming-music: A description of an improvisation music therapy outreach approach, Schizo zen, or subjectivity and the schizoid musician. A ball can roll/be rolled differently, based on its own sphericity, the speed with which we propel it, the type of surface it is rolled on (e.g.
Dynamic, contextual creations of music exist in conjunction with sensation, movement, awareness, expression, communication, social interaction, and so on.
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