Enormous popular attention in the media focuses on the "Wild West" of the second half of the 19th century. His death reawakened discussion over police brutality. Lee's smaller army won at the Battle of Fredericksburg late in 1862, causing yet another change in commanders. Nationalists worried that the new nation was too fragile to withstand an international war, or even internal revolts such as the Shays' Rebellion of 1786 in Massachusetts. 147–48). In a single stroke it changed the legal status, as recognized by the U.S. government, of 3 million slaves in designated areas of the Confederacy from "slave" to "free".
 In 2012, President Obama became the first president to openly support same-sex marriage, and the 2013 Supreme Court decision in the case of United States v. Windsor provided for federal recognition of same-sex unions.
1789 - George Washington becomes the first President of the United States. Washington called out the state militia and personally led an army against the settlers, as the insurgents melted away and the power of the national government was firmly established. 1974 - President Richard Nixon resigns over the Watergate Scandal. Immigration laws were passed to strictly limit the number of new entries. 1944–1956 – v. 9. After a near ten-month siege, Petersburg surrendered. Twain believed that this age was corrupted by such elements as land speculators, scandalous politics, and unethical business practices. The Articles of Confederation established a central government, but it was ineffectual at providing stability as it could not collect taxes and had no executive officer. , The American Revolutionary War began at Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts in April 1775 when the British tried to seize ammunition supplies and arrest the Patriot leaders. While public health facilities grew rapidly in the Progressive Era, and hospitals and medical schools were modernized, the nation in 1918 lost 675,000 lives to the Spanish flu pandemic.. Native American attacks continued, with the most significant occurring in the 1637 Pequot War and the 1675 King Philip's War. , The French and Indian War (1754–63), part of the larger Seven Years' War, was a watershed event in the political development of the colonies. Rivers were harnessed to power grain mills and sawmills, and the numerous harbors facilitated trade. Women suffragists demonstrating for the right to vote in 1913.
In perhaps the turning point of the war, Lee's army was badly beaten at the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863, and barely made it back to Virginia.
1927 - The first trans-Atlantic flight is made by Charles Lindbergh.  The economic expansion came to an end in early 2020 with a sharp economic contraction largely caused by the coronavirus pandemic, which seriously affected the United States. The Articles of the Confederation were ratified by the colonies. , Johnson was succeeded in 1969 by Republican Richard Nixon, who attempted to gradually turn the war over to the South Vietnamese forces. Leer, Jeff, Doug Hitch, & John Ritter. 434–45). Ideologically the revolution established modern liberalism in the United States and kept the Democrats in power in Washington almost continuously for Three decades thanks to the New Deal Coalition of ethnic Whites, Blacks, blue-collar workers, labor unions, and white Southerners. In the North, the Methodists, Congregationalists, and Quakers included many abolitionists, especially among women activists. 1: 1492–1877 From Pre-Columbian to British North America, 1492–1763 1939 - World War II begins. The Fall of Saigon ended the Vietnam War and resulted in North and South Vietnam being reunited. Whereas Jefferson’s party feared the federal government was becoming too powerful, Hamilton’s party feared that unless the federal government and national economy were stabilized, the United States would be vulnerable to foreign invasion. , Washington refused to serve more than two terms – setting a precedent – and in his famous farewell address, he extolled the benefits of federal government and importance of ethics and morality while warning against foreign alliances and the formation of political parties. Republicans, citing McKinley's policies, took the credit. Milner, Clyde A., Carol A. O'Connor, and Martha A. Sandweiss, eds. Jon Sensbach.
This migration may have begun as early as 30,000 years ago and continued through to about 10,000 years ago, when the land bridge became submerged by the rising sea level caused by the melting glaciers. As white Democrats in the South lost dominance of the Democratic Party in the 1990s, the region took on the two-party apparatus which characterized most of the nation. 1941 - The Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor. Comprising the first ten amendments of the Constitution, it guaranteed individual liberties such as freedom of speech and religious practice, jury trials, and stated that citizens and states had reserved rights (which were not specified).. Resistance to these taxes, especially the Boston Tea Party in 1773, led to Parliament issuing punitive laws designed to end self-government in Massachusetts. The Congress called for a boycott of British trade, published a list of rights and grievances, and petitioned the king to rectify those grievances. Within two hours, both Twin Towers of the World Trade Center completely collapsed causing massive damage to the surrounding area and blanketing Lower Manhattan in toxic dust clouds. The main episode was the Spanish–American War, which began when Spain refused American demands to reform its oppressive policies in Cuba. However, when white Democrats regained their power in the South in 1877, often by paramilitary suppression of voting, they passed Jim Crow laws to maintain white supremacy, as well as new disenfranchising state constitutions that prevented most African Americans and many Poor Whites from voting. , After a period of exploration sponsored by major European nations, the first successful English settlement was established in 1607. Watson Brake is an 11-mound complex in Louisiana that dates to 3,500 BCE, and nearby Poverty Point, built by the Poverty Point culture, is an earthwork complex that dates to 1,700 BCE. The Americans under General William Henry Harrison finally gained naval control of Lake Erie and defeated the Indians under Tecumseh in Canada, while Andrew Jackson ended the Indian threat in the Southeast. , From 2009 to 2010, the 111th Congress passed major legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, informally known as Obamacare, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act, which were signed into law by President Obama.
, As strong opponents of the war, the Federalists held the Hartford Convention in 1814 that hinted at disunion. , With Napoleon (apparently) gone, the causes of the war had evaporated and both sides agreed to a peace that left the prewar boundaries intact. With Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s surrender to General Grant, what should become of the Confederate leaders? In 2007, the United States entered its worst economic crisis since the Great Depression, which was followed by slower-than-usual rates of economic growth during the early 2010s. Review of McKivigan, John R.; Snay, Mitchell, eds., On Lee's strategy in 1863 see James M. McPherson, "To Conquer a Peace? Slave rebellions, by Gabriel Prosser (1800), Denmark Vesey (1822), Nat Turner (1831), and most famously by John Brown (1859), caused fear in the white South, which imposed stricter oversight of slaves and reduced the rights of free blacks.
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