Opening 12 bars are an adaptation of the chorus of the ‘Holy City’. The first two are the Uncle Remus stories, which were collected by Joel Chandler Harris, and the ‘spirituals’ or slave songs, to which the Fisk Jubilee Singers made the public and the musicians of both the United States and Europe listen. In Love and Theft, Lott writes that “Whitman was a great lover of the minstrel show, seeing in it an American example of what he had found in opera, but he could never quite decide whether it represented the best or worst America had to offer in the way of a national art. Parallel harmonic movement (27-28). The higher … For a different reading of the performativity of Whitman's poetry, see Stephen Railton, “As If I Were With You,” 7–26. 3. Importantly, while the black woman in Whitman's poem is overtaken by a sense of confusion that can yield only a nominal sound, the black subjects of Work's “Marching through Georgia” are vociferous, if not caricaturized as such: “How the darkies shouted when they heard the joyful sound / How the turkeys gobbled which our commissary found / How the sweet potatoes even started from the ground / While we were marching through Georgia.”. University of Maryland, Baltimore County provides funding as a member of The Conversation US. Although he was principally outlining his theory of the Union in “The Eighteenth Presidency!,” no small quality of the poet emerges here with the reference to images of nature, ending, as it does, with the signature image and metaphor of grass itself. I shall speak of the ‘spirituals’ later because they are more than folk songs, for in them the Negro sounded the depths, if he did not scale the heights, of music.” For more on Burleigh and Negro spirituals, see Southern, Music of Black Americans, 284; and Southall, “Black Composers and Religious Music,” 48. (p.97), As a social text, Burleigh's composition is significant because it revises two earlier artworks—one literary, the other musical—that depicted one of the most decisive historical events that rescripted black subjectivity in the United States. (44.) "Black and Tan Fantasy" is a 1927 jazz composition by Duke Ellington and Bubber Miley. . Instead, Whitman rehistoricizes “A Boston Ballad” as a crisis of nation formation for American colonials attempting to break away from the British crown: I will whisper it to the Mayor . Aspiz, Walt Whitman and the Body Beautiful. For an extended discussion of Whitman's relationship to the temperance, suffrage, and other social issues of the day, see Reynolds, “Politics and Poetry.”. The diversity of multiple voices wailing, growling or praying while each expresses a fullness of heart and heaviness of mind is what gives the piece its beauty. 2. (p.100). . This was reiterated by Emerson who, thinking of its ethical consequences, regretted that the “new Bill made it operative, required me to hunt slaves, and it found citizens in Massachusetts willing to act as judges and captors.”26 But, whereas Emerson's aversion to the Fugitive Slave Law was based primarily on what he saw as an ethical violation, Whitman saw it primarily as a violation of the procedural underpinnings of the “organic compact.” Whitman proposed instead that these matters should be adjusted by the “good faith” of the states—“Good faith is irresistible among men, It is only in the seventh stanza when the speaker asks, “What troubles you, Yankee phantoms?
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